How to practice a rebase on the command line – 112

In yesterday’s tip, you saw how to visualize a rebase. Today’s tip allows you to practice performing a rebase via the command line.

First, we’ll have master contain one extra commit that isn’t included in your `experiment` branch. For example, you were working on `experiment` and a new commit was added to master (either by you, e.g. bug fix, or from a remote).

master log containing a fileMaster commit

Next, you’ll have a commit on `experiment` that isn’t on master.

experiment log adding a fileExperiment not on master

Since you are on your local machine, you can rewrite history because you haven’t shared or pushed these changes.

From the `experiment` branch, you’ll run

$ git rebase master

git rebase master

and then checkout master and merge in experiment to do the fast-forward merge.

fast-forward merge

One thing the visualization is able to emphasize is how the commit IDs are different for the “added fileExperiment”.

new commit ID

The commit ID `f041b71` is no longer `1601e09` (as shown in the 2nd image for added fileExperiment).

How to visualize a rebase in the Git Visualization tool – 111

If it wasn’t for this visualization tool, I’d never grasp Git concepts. Today’s tip follows the Git documentation for Rebasing

Suppose you’re experimenting locally on one branch (called creatively, `experiment`) and you want to rebase back onto master. For now, let’s imagine that master is a remote that you’ve cloned from somewhere. When the time comes to push those changes back, you don’t want your local Git history* to show merges commits from your local explorations. You’re going for the linear “look! I got it all right on the first try” history.

visualization setup of master vs experiment branches

First, you’ll want to make sure you’re on the `experiment` branch.

Next, you’ll use the command to rebase your current branch (experiment) onto master. I silently verbalize “onto” as the preposition to help me understand what the rebase command is going to do.

$ git rebase master

rebase visualization

Note how the rebase results in new commit IDs. If you take nothing else away today, note this:

Whenever you do a rebase, you are changing history.

more on this later.

Now to “finish the rebase.” This is where I’m so grateful for this visualization tool. Before seeing what was happening, I’d thought everything would be done for me.  Thanks to the visualization I can see based on the master pointer that I need to merge the experiment branch.

$ git checkout master

$ git merge experiment

moving master up to experiment

This last step should look familiar. The rebase makes our history look like all of our changes were based on the last commit on master. This would be the equivalent of being on the last commit of master, checking out a branch, making commits, and then performing a fast-forward merge from master.

There are just so many moving parts here that a visualization tool helps greatly.

*I mentioned previously about doing rebases on your local git history. The rule of rebasing is you should never do it if those commits have been previously pushed or shared somewhere, since you’re changing history, and Git hates it when you change history. There are ways out of it, but I’m saving that to explore in October timeframe.

A good recap from the documentation (last sentence, of course. always amazing how the most important info is often found at the very end of a document or email. a trick someone taught me once is to write out what you want to say, and the reverse the order of the paragraphs. I guess this blog post is proof of concept 😉 since I’m leaving the most important piece at the bottom!)

In general the way to get the best of both worlds is to rebase local changes you’ve made but haven’t shared yet before you push them in order to clean up your story, but never rebase anything you’ve pushed somewhere.

How to add a custom Git command to your Visual Studio menu – 110

Following yesterday’s tip, you can also add a custom Git command as an external tool.

For example, my output window shows the output of `git log –oneline –graph –decorate`

output of git log

Go to Tools – External Tools and add a custom tool similar to the screenshot I have below, where Title = `git log`, Command = `git.ext`, Arguments = `log –oneline –decoreate –graph`. If you click the Right Arrow button to the right of Initial Directory, you can choose where the current directory is for git commands. I’m using Current Solution $(SolutionDir) which is an internal variable to Visual Studio.

git log

After you add it, you’ll see your command appear under Tools menu next to External Tools.

Tools - git log

How to add Git Bash to your Visual Studio menu – 109

You can add Git commands to your main menu bar in Visual Studio.

Git - Git Bash as a VS menu item

For today’s example, you’ll see me add a Git menu with a command to open Git Bash in a command prompt.

command prompt opened outside VS

Part 1 – Add Git Bash as an External Tool

I promised myself I wouldn’t blog about VS tips in this series. I’m sure if you searched you’ll find my old posts how the External Tools works 🙂

External Tools showing Git Bash added

Just note the order in which Git Bash is listed above. In my example, it is External Tools 3. This will be needed in a second.

Part 2 – Create a Git menu in VS

Same story as above. I’m certain you can find my ancient posts, so here’s the quick version. Go to Tools – Customize – Commands

Then click Add New Menu and click Modify Selection (yeah, that’s some ancient UI) to give it a name, e.g. Git, and an icon and such if you want.

Tools - Customize - Commands

Lastly, switch the Menu bar: to Git (or whatever you called your menu). Click Add New Menu and select Tools – External Command <your number from above>

Menu bar dropdown switched to Git

And you should be good to go!

Thanks again to Ed’s O’Reilly course on Git for Visual Studio for the inspiration!

How to know what the capitalized letter means in [Y/n] – 108

I promised myself I’d be honest, brutally honest, about all the things I’ve had to learn. And one of them is about the capitalized letter when you’re presented with such a question in a command line interface.

I’ll admit I was typing in ‘Y’ as a response. Perhaps it wants me to be really sure. Kinda like when you want to get hot water out of a water cooler, you have to press 2 buttons or hold one button down, etc.

The capitalized letter is the default if you were to simply press enter.

For example, if you want to open VS as your external diff tool, as you saw in yesterday’s tip

$ git difftool branch-name file-name

Launch 'vsdiffmerge' [Y/n]?

You can simply press enter, and the vsdiffmerge command will be run!

How to diff a file between two branches using VS as your difftool – 107

Suppose you want to diff a specific file between two branches. The best* git command I’ve found is in this SO answer (only because I’ve found a couple of other sites reference it)

$ git diff branch-name path/to/file

The SO answer says to use `..` in front of branch-name, but I’ve found it works without it. There are WAY too many variants of these commands to keep track of.

I’d love to figure out where this command option is in the official docs but it is pretty overwhelming list.

In a previous tip, you saw how to use VS as your external diff tool. As the blog post title describes, here’s how to do it

$ git difftool branch-name path/to/file

for example, the name of my branch in the image below is `readme` and my filename is `readme.txt`.

I don’t have to provide a path to the readme file since it is at the same location as my current directory.

image

and volia Visual Studio appears**

diff of two different pearl jam song lyrics across branches

* I have no idea if this is the best answer. I’ve read that there’s old syntax and new syntax. I’d love to hear people’s suggestions in the comments!

**I’ve noticed in VS 2017 that VS must be running. Otherwise, the IDE is launched, but the tool doesn’t appear. If you re-run the command via command line, the dif will appear. YMMV

And yeah, I wonder what genre of music I listen to when I write 🙂

How to use Visual Studio as your external merge tool – 106

Hmm, I wonder what could possibly be my tip for the day after yesterday’s tip!

In yesterday’s scenario, you saw how to use VS to do a diff. In today’s tip, you’ll see how to do a merge when you do `git merge branch-name` and get into a merge conflict. Hopefully you’re feeling a bit more confident when you see merge conflict now. (Yeah that’s actually my hope for myself.)

First, go to Team Explorer – Settings – Git – Global Settings and for Merge tool, click Use Visual Studio

Merge Tool: Use Visual Studio

Suppose you have a file in one branch (mine is called readme) that contains a conflict. When you go to merge into master, you’ll see a merge conflict.

You can open the mergetool by running

$ git mergetool

git mergetool prompting to open in VS

Follow the instructions and hit Enter.

Now the VS Merge tool appears

VS merge tool

Clean up your readme.txt in the bottom part of the screen (or however you want to use the merge tool).

Now we’ll see that we have changes in our working directory.

need to do git add to stage changes from merge

You can do a `git add readme.txt` to add this file to staging.

file added to staging

And now we commit our merge commit via `git commit -m “merged readme”`

committing our merge commit

and the `git log` confirms our merge.